It is often easier to make a small modification to your config. So Microsoft did not program Windows as a standalone operating system which they could have done, if they wanted , but rather as a graphical add-on for MS-DOS. I have noticed that many users have little or hardly any knowledge of the basic configuration topics. The issue is that EMM SYS is not longer a binary file.

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Additional hardware like mass storage controllers, network adapters In fact Microsoft has prepared their software for the things we want to do.

This page was last modified on 12 Aprilat All the above mentioned topics have only modified the internal state of the command processor. The term is mainly used under the DOS and Windows operating systems. So we set two boundaries for windows.

Views Read View source View history. Rather well supported is the NEAT chipset. The Extended Memory X,s XMS describes an application interface that allows to copy memory between conventional and extended memory.

In this context the term “extended memory” may refer to either the whole of the extended memory or only the portion available through this API. Now, sometimes we want to boot our machine with EMS memory. This is usually of 16 kB size and reserved in UMA.


In DOS hardware and memory access is closely related to the standards defined by the x86 architecture. To differentiate between the possibly different amount of memory that might be available to applications, depending on which version of the specification they were developed to, the latter may be referred to as super extended memory or SXMS. However if you have to use EMS you can modify your config.

DOS memory management

The latest EMS 4. But be warned that smartdrive by default enables a write back technique. The extended memory manager is also responsible for managing allocations in the high memory area HMA and the upper memory area UMA; also referred to as upper memory blocks or UMBs. Daily use of defrag is surely overkill. My suggestion is that you do not load smartdrive by default, but rather from command line if you want to make many file operations copy, delete etc.

XMS and other memory mysteries

If you are using Windows95 you will have noticed that you can start a DOS shell from the desktop. But if you have some hard disks, cd-rom, and perhaps other removable media drives installed f can lead to a problem. And those multi configuration are very hard to handle and keep up to date. So we want to order it at first.

That will set XMS to whatever you actually have or something less if you really want. It is the textmode memory for monchrome graphics cards. If you think you’re an config. It provides additional memory manangement routines needed by many programs and it is able to load DOS programs and drivers into the UMB.


Then the drivers and setup programs are loaded. So windows knows that it should assign 4MB file cache maximum and hold 1MB cache whatever happens. June Learn how and when to remove this template message. Navigation Main page Recent changes Random page Help.

This disclaimer is brought to you thanks to the BSA. Windows95 behaves just as Windows 3.

Configuring your MS-DOS properly

Only when compiling large programs or when copying, deleting, compressing, moving many small files smartdrive has it’s use. But there are other games that need EMS to be available not XMS, and you need an upper memory manager of some sort if you want enough conventional memory for zms games. And hardware manufactores supplied drivers for their products, and soon the complete PC world only wanted Windows.